Tameside Strategic Partnership

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Child Poverty Needs Assessment

2. Local Picture: Child Poverty in Tameside

This assessment of Child Poverty in Tameside is shaped around the "building blocks" of child poverty set out by the Child Poverty Unit namely, Life Chances, Employment and Skills and Financial Support and Place. The significance of poverty in relation to other characteristics of our communities (e.g. education and health) will be explored in the appropriate building blocks later in the document. This section aims to provide an insight into the overall Child Poverty picture at a local level and look at some of the key characteristics of Child Poverty in Tameside.

To do this we have used some national data where relevant but have made extensive use of high quality local data available to us through the Council’s Housing and Council Tax Benefit systems to provide us with a greater depth of intelligence.

Note on use of Housing and Council Tax Benefit data as intelligence on poverty; as mentioned earlier in the assessment, the current national child poverty measure is defined as " The percent of children who live in families in receipt of out-of-work benefits or in working families with income less than 60% of the median national income" . The latest data nationally available to Local Authorities is currently from 2008 and provides limited up to date detail beyond this point. The HBCTB data enables us to highlight children living in households where the income is under the 60% median line or within a range which means these households are still vulnerable to living in poverty with some of these households being out of work and some in work. Finally, the dataset also enables further analysis of poverty in the borough by looking at key characteristics of these households.

2.1 How Many Children Live in Poverty in Tameside?

The latest estimate (as of September 2010) using local/HBCTB data shows that 27% of all children in Tameside are living in poverty equating to around 12,722 children. These households may have very low or no income. The last national figures, from 2008, indicated that there were 23.5% of children living in poverty in Tameside compared to 20.9% in England.

Graph showing percentage of all children living in poverty
Image showing More than 1 in 4 children live in poverty in Tameside
More than 1 in 4 children live in poverty in Tameside

HBCTB Measure of Poverty

This data is based upon the numbers of children in households claiming housing or council tax benefit. Whilst this is a good indicator of poverty in the borough we must also bear in mind other data to provide us with a better picture of the current situation. Firstly, there will be a number of households with very low income who will not be included in the HBCTB data, the majority of which will be claiming Working and Child Tax credits or claiming the family element of Child Tax Credits.

In Work Poverty

The latest finalised data for Tax Credits indicates that in 2008 there were a further 14,000 children (again another 27%) living in households claiming working and child tax credits and a further 10,800 children living in households claiming the family element of child tax credits (around 20% - with incomes over £20,000 cf Minimum Income Standard). We know that nationally, the majority of children living in poverty live in households where someone is working. In Tameside, the proportion of children living in in-work poverty is even higher due to the prevalence of low wage and insecure employment (this will be discussed in more detail in the Employment and Skills section):

Chart showing proportion of children living in in-work poverty
Graph showing percentage of SOAs in Tameside with higher in-work than out of work poverty

Children in Low Income Families (HMRC 2006-2007)

Severe Poverty

Finally, the charity Save the Children have recently carried out research looking at "Severe Poverty" in the UK. They classify Severe Poverty as a household with an income of below 50 per cent of the median (after housing costs), and where both adults and children lack at least one basic necessity, and either adults or children or both groups lack at least two basic necessities. Whilst this measure is not as widely used as the national measure and differs somewhat from our local HBCTB, this research estimates that there are 7000 or 17% children living in severe poverty in Tameside (this compares to 15% in the North West and 13% in England). (Save the Children - Briefing Link to External Website Adobe Acrobat Format)

Summary of Key Messages:

  • Key Message 1: More than 1 in 4 children in Tameside live in Poverty
  • Key Message 2: Around half of all children in Tameside live in households claiming workless benefits or claiming Working and Child Tax Credits.
  • Key Message 3: Most children living in poverty live in a household where someone is working.

2.2 How are Poverty Levels Distributed Across Tameside?

More than 1 in 4 of all children in Tameside were living in poverty in September 2010 according to the local HBCTB measure. Through the same measure we are able to highlight the variations in poverty across the borough both at Ward and Super Output Area level. The map below provides an illustration of the spread of poverty across the borough and shows a breakdown of the percentage of children living in poverty in each SOA. The highest (worst) ranked SOA in terms of child poverty is situated in the St Peters area with around 60% or 258 children living in poverty. Other Super Output Areas with very high levels of poverty fall in parts of Hattersley (54% and 53%) and parts of Ridgehill (53%). This is compared to 2% in the areas least affected by poverty. The table below shows the worst 20 SOAs in Tameside in terms of Child Poverty:

Worst 20 SOAs in Tameside in Terms of Child Poverty:

SOA

# Children living in Poverty

% Children in Poverty

Rank (of 141) %

Rough Area (not whole ward)

E01005952 258 60% 1 St Peter's
E01006027 222 54% 2 Longdendale
E01006065 241 53% 3 Stalybridge North
E01006050 203 53% 4 Longdendale
E01006056 157 49% 5 Mossley
E01006025 173 49% 6 Hyde Godley
E01005933 225 48% 7 Ashton Hurst
E01006016 128 48% 8 Dukinfield
E01005945 270 48% 9 AshtonSt Michael's
E01005984 158 48% 10 Denton South
E01006031 171 46% 11 Hyde Newton
E01006005 142 46% 12 Droylsden West
E01006036 210 45% 13 Hyde Newton
E01006039 179 45% 14 Hyde Werneth
E01006032 148 44% 15 Hyde Newton
E01005935 166 44% 16 Ashton Hurst
E01006000 87 44% 17 Droylsden East
E01006069 206 43% 18 Stalybridge South
E01005965 120 42% 19 St Peter's
E01005978 130 41% 20 Denton South

The full spread of poverty in Tameside by SOA can be seen in first the map below, the darker areas are those with higher levels of child poverty. The second map indicates which SOAs in Tameside have higher ‘in-work’ poverty and their relative values:

Map showing percentage of children 0-16 living in households claiming HBCTB (indicative of Child Poverty levels)
Map of Tameside indicating areas with higher in-work and out of work poverty

Finally, in addition to levels of poverty at SOA level, we can also provide a breakdown in each of the wards and service areas in Tameside. The St Peters Ward has the highest percentage of children living in poverty (39%), followed by Denton South (34%) and Hyde Godley (34%). The Denton West and Audenshaw wards have the lowest levels of child poverty in Tameside with 12% and 18% respectively. It is important to note the significance of boundaries in making geographical assessments; there may be local pockets with much higher levels of poverty than the ward figures would suggest. For example, the Audenshaw ward has one of the lowest levels of child poverty in Tameside (comparatively) but has a local area, E01005967 (Around Poplar Street), where 29% are living in poverty. Similarly, the Mossley Ward has a fairly low percentage of children living in poverty yet has two local and separate areas with very high levels of poverty, E01006056 (Micklehurst) with 49% and E01006054 (Waterton Lane) with 36%. You can see a full breakdown of the ward and Service area figures in the graph and table below:

Table showing percentage of children living in poverty (HBCTB) by ward and service area

Ward or Service Area

% of all children living in poverty

St Peter's 38.53%
Denton South 34.26%
Hyde Godley 33.57%
Hyde Newton 33.01%
Longdendale 31.78%
Ashton Area 31.66%
Ashton Hurst 31.38%
HHL Area 31.28%
Ashton St Michael's 30.24%
Dukinfield 29.82%
Stalybridge North 28.71%
Tameside 27.20%
Hyde Werneth 26.57%
Droylsden West 25.83%
DSM Area 24.91%
Ashton Waterloo 24.58%
Droylsden East 24.09%
Denton North East 23.18%
DDA Area 22.67%
Mossley 22.34%
Stalybridge South 21.50%
Dukinfield Stalybridge 19.45%
Audenshaw 18.00%
Denton West 11.89%

How does this relate to those areas which are deprived according to the IMD and the Priority Neighbourhoods? On the whole the distribution of child poverty in Tameside correlates with the Index of Multiple Deprivation, this is to be expected to some extent but there are some discrepancies. For example, E01006065 (Part of Ridge Hill) ranks as 3 rd worst in Tameside in terms of poverty yet only 28 th in terms of overall deprivation. Even in comparison to the Income Domain of the IMD there are some areas of discrepancy. For Example, E01006040 (Around Corporation Street Hyde) ranks number 1 in the Income Domain of IMD but only 22 nd in terms of child poverty.

In comparison to the priority neighbourhoods in Tameside, there is a similar picture. On the whole the areas with high levels of poverty, St Peters, Hattersley, Smallshaw and Hurst are also identified as priority neighbourhoods but there are a number of areas with high levels of poverty which fall outside of these neighbourhoods (e.g. E01006005, off Sunnyside Road, Droylsden with 46% in poverty).

Summary of Key Messages:

  • Key Message 4: Every area (SOA and Ward) in Tameside has children living in poverty.
  • Key Message 5: There are a number of local pockets where child poverty is extremely high (up to 60%).
  • Key Message 6: There area a high number of local pockets where in-work poverty is high (up to 51%). These areas are not always the same as those with the highest out of work poverty.
  • Key Message 7: The ward with the highest levels of Child Poverty is St Peters (nearly 40%) but figures for ward boundaries may hide the full picture of poverty in local areas.
  • Key Message 8: Whilst there is a correlation between Child Poverty and the IMD, there are a number of areas of variation.
  • Key Message 9: Whilst there are a number of ‘hotspots’ of child poverty in Tameside, it is difficult to tackle poverty in isolation solely in a single area in Tameside rather than at population level.

2.3 How has this changed over time?

Due to the varying availability of local and national data for poverty in Tameside, we have constructed a trend for poverty in the borough (from August 2006 to September 2010) by combining two datasets including the national HMRC data and the local HBCTB data. In August 2006 national HMRC data indicated that there were 22.5% of children in Tameside living in poverty. Poverty levels remained relatively similar until mid to late 2008 when child poverty in Tameside increased steadily for a period of 2 years reaching a peak of 27.8% in June 2010. The period of increase from 2008 equates to a further 2268 children living in poverty or a 22% increase between June 2008 and September 2010.

Table showing percentage of children living in poverty (local and national data)

The notable increase in levels of overall poverty in the borough from 2008 to 2010 corresponds to the economic downturn over this period. This is demonstrated by rises in other key indicators closely related to the economic climate namely the rise in the number of people claiming Job Seekers Allowance and also in those claiming other Key Out Of Work Benefits. The graph below illustrates the rising levels of CP, JSA and KOWB in Tameside from mid-2008 (note that this should be used for time comparisons and not proportional comparisons):

Graph showing Comparisons - Poverty

From 2008 we have also seen increasing pressures on families through increases in the price of consumer goods and the cost of food and fuel. These increases have been driving up the cost of living and contributing to increasing levels of poverty and Material deprivation since 2008:

Chart showing Price Rises 2008-2011

At ward level, different areas have seen varying relative rises in the numbers of children living in poverty. All areas have seen an increase in child poverty levels since 2008; the Dukinfield Stalybridge ward has seen the greatest percentage increase - a 54% increase or 135 children. In terms of numbers, the Hyde Godley and Hyde Newton ward have seen the greatest increase with an additional 223 and 202 children respectively.

Chart showing percentage increase in levels of child poverty in Tameside (June 2008 - September 2010)

At a very local level we can see the areas which have had the biggest percentage point increase from June 2008 to September 2010. The map below shows the areas with the greatest percentage point increase in poverty over the last two years.

There is no correlation between areas with high levels of poverty and the increasing levels of poverty in the last two years. This would suggest that the causes of poverty in the areas which have historically had high levels of poverty are not wholly the same as the causes of increasing levels of poverty. In terms of ‘Hot spots’ there are, however, a number of local areas (SOAs) which fall within the top/worst 20 SOAs in Tameside in terms of poverty and are also exhibiting large increases in levels of poverty. The top three of these are E01005978 (In Denton South), E01006032 (Around Oakfield School in Newton) and E01006000 (Droylsden Town Centre and Parts of Fairfield).

Map showing areas with greatest percentage point increase in poverty over last two years

SOA

% Children in Poverty

Rank of %

Rough Area (not whole ward)

% Point Inc

E01005978 41% 20 Denton South 14%
E01006032 44% 15 Hyde Newton 12%
E01006000 44% 17 Droylsden East 11%
E01006016 48% 8 Dukinfield 10%
E01006031 46% 11 Hyde Newton 10%
E01006027 54% 2 Longdendale 10%
E01005945 48% 9 Ashton St Michael's 9%
E01006036 45% 13 Hyde Newton 9%
E01005965 42% 19 St Peter's 5%
E01006039 45% 14 Hyde Werneth 5%
E01005952 60% 1 St Peter's 5%
E01006025 49% 6 Hyde Godley 5%
E01005933 48% 7 Ashton Hurst 4%
E01005984 48% 10 Denton South 3%
E01006050 53% 4 Longdendale 3%
E01006056 49% 5 Mossley 3%
E01006065 53% 3 Stalybridge North 3%
E01006005 46% 12 Droylsden West 2%
E01006069 43% 18 Stalybridge South 1%
E01005935 44% 16 Ashton Hurst 0%

Summary of Key Messages:

  • Key Message 10: Poverty in Tameside has been consistently increasing over the past few years
  • Key Message 11: The increases in poverty in observed in Tameside come at the same time as increases in worklessness and rising food and living costs.
  • Key Message 12: The causes of poverty in the areas which have historically had high levels of poverty are not wholly the same as the causes of increasing levels of poverty.
  • Key Message 13: Poverty is becoming more widespread.
 
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